浮世异景—当代艺术国际邀请展

策展人:

刘凡(中)、Walter Bergmoser(德)

参展艺术家:

Andrea Sunder-Plassmann(德)、Andrej Glusgold(德)、Elizabeth Ross(墨/西)、何汶玦(中)、栗子(中)、林一征、刘凡(中)、吕山川(中)、Juha Suonpää(芬)、Meera Margaret Singh(加)、Peter Sramek(加)、朴素贇(韩)、Walter Bergmoser(德)、叶佑天(中)、圆大西(中)

展览时间:

2018年10月20日-2019年1月20日

主办机构:

玄之美术馆

展览地点:

福州市鼓楼区三坊七巷历史文化街区塔巷29、53号院

 

浮世,并不止是异景

玄之美术馆坐落在福州的三坊七巷,这个充满传奇色彩的历史街区。在这个地理的、文化的、历史的实体空间背后,是一段浮世的景象,是一种人为的历史、社会和政治的建构,而这个建构的过程是流动的、复合的,与他者文化相互混合的。本次展览《浮世异景——当代艺术国际邀请展》用分群、变异、试验、转变的分析方法,从多重论的视角、多元化的身份去探讨意义消解与重构下的空间场域,呈现出一个在地的、差异化的精神空间。在这个物质的空间里,精神感于空间不再是僵死的、刻板的、非辩证的,而是富有启发和理论生命力的概念。

 

作为20世纪80年代柏林早期的实验性和多学科艺术场景的先驱,Andrea Sunder-Plassmann的作品将摄影、超8和16毫米电影的表演结合在一起,创建临时的和特定场地的装置,探索对象和环境之间的协同作用,以及观察者作为工作中的一个元素所产生的影响。Andrej Glusgold的摄影作品从自然主义的视角出发,将文化身份与社会现实融入到作品中,从日常生活中抽离出事物的表象并陌生化地展现出来。刘凡的作品在时间凝视的叙述中划开了一道纤细的缝隙,以致于看似完整的表面被剥离出无法弥补的间隙。

 

Juha Suonpää的作品充满幽默感和怀疑精神,他用理性的方式将传说、神话和历史故事进行否定和拆解,在偶发的剧情中来面对历史与当下对话的可能性。Peter Sramek事无巨细地呈现了他穿越各种地理和文化空间中的纪录,他用一种独特的构图以及他者的视角洞察了不同空间界限下的艺术家的体验。Walter Bergmoser将个人情感与私密化的叙述场域展现于作品之中,服饰、道具与人物表情无声地讲述着艺术家关于伤害、幻想、迷茫、焦虑、不安、失落、孤独的理解与阐释。

 

栗子的作品将画面延展至画框之外,用西方古典主义的形式将阳刚与力量之美转为沉寂与荒凉之气,在一种忧郁、紧张而又飘渺的神秘感中蔓延开来。经典的符号成为她作品中不断出现的寓言,它们被吸引到一种代表历史的废墟之中,成为不可逆转的分解和腐朽过程的展示。圆大西是一位极具才情的艺术家,他的作品高冷而富有距离感,仿佛精神返回到它混沌的起源,它不乏智慧和宁静,却在无所执着的凝滞中远离了生命本有或当有的一切悲欢。他的新作中将古典图像与神秘的背景融合,它来自种种心理内容的融混,而这种融混,只有在意识变得模糊暗淡的时候才会增强,在一种偶发的状态中对叙事进行着重构,将自我意识的视觉化呈现。

 

《死了都要爱》是何汶玦的一件以瓷为媒介的装置作品。作品中,精美无瑕的玫瑰与代表死亡的骷髅组成的单词LOVE并置,文本LOVE的美好含意与骷髅符号产生了巨大的反差,文本的确定性与作品传达出的怀疑态度让人对真实性产生了质疑,符号化的骷髅摧毁了一切表面化的象征寓意。近年来,叶佑天一直在创作他开创的手绘诗意动画,他将传统美学元素融入到动画创作中,以个体静思的方式来表述个人对世界的认知及哲学思考。

 

虽然,生活在北京的吕山川和生活在德国科隆的林一征都以材料为试验对象,但他们分别选择了不同的材料媒介,吕山川选择了油画,而林一征选择了水墨。不过,他们的目的都是为了否定图像的折涉性,呈现出一种经过编码的结构。吕山川的厚涂法与强反差的色彩和林一征水墨分裂的化学效果与黑白的层次感,让观者看到了他们充满自发性的绘画特征,并体会着肌理表象中由不同材质带来的个体快感。

 

展览中的三位女艺术家Elizabeth Ross、Meera Margaret Singh和朴素贇作品以性别身份为主题,将身体作为诉说反抗和制造意义的工具。Elizabeth Ross躺在各种以男性为中心建立的政治体制的建筑物前,成为被观看的景象中的一部分。朴素贇将亚洲传统文化中代表男权的龙的符号与巨大尺幅裸体女性形象并峙,女性身体感官上的冲击力与龙的形态形成强烈的动态感。Meera Margaret Singh的《二重奏》中,一对老年人彼此模仿着对方的动作,反映了艺术家一直以来非常关注性别身份与老龄化问题。

 

艺术家的心理空间所构成的知识文化系谱,是一种文化视阈,一种记忆政治学,一种文化渗透中表现出的策略行为,从意识形态到日常生活,这些复杂的心理体验成为穿越多维世界的异质化空间在个体心灵里的隐射,生活在这样一个浮世的时代,艺术家为观者创造了一个远非浮世的多样化的异景世界,这也成为艺术家和观者解读这个时代的个体样本。

 

刘凡

2018年9月于清华园

Feminist Art-Not a Problem?

女性主义艺术——不是问题的问题?

Feminist Art -- not a problem?

 

当策展人丹米斯女士去年跟我提到在中国做一个女性主义的展览时,我的第一反应是:在中国做这样一个展览是有风险的。这种风险来自于:在一个父权社会影响严重的当代中国,无论是在学术圈,还是在艺术圈,女性主义不再是一个热门话题,甚至有人提出:女性主义根本就不是一个命题。但是在看过她的策展方案和参展艺术家作品之后,我觉得与这些活跃在西方社会非常重要的女性艺术家做一个中外女性艺术家的对比,将会是一个比较有趣的展览。

When Dermis, the curator told me to have a feminist exhibition in China last year, my first reaction was: there is a risk of doing such an exhibition in China. This risk comes from that in such patriarchal society of modern China, whether in academic field or in the art circle, feminism is no longer a popular topic. It has even been proposed: feminism is not a proposition. But after seeing her curatorial program and the works of participating artists, I thought it would be interesting to do a comparison of Chinese women artists and such well-known international women artists.  

 

谈到女性主义,首先需要从对“feminism”一词的演绎来解读其在中国的发展。早在“五四”新文化运动中,西方女性主义就被介绍到中国,当时的学者根据西方女性主义运动的特点将之翻译为“女权主义”,旗帜鲜明地强调女性在社会、政治和经济地位上的平等权力,反对任何妇女遭受任何社会、个人或经济上的歧视。后由于很多学者的反对,视女权主义为洪水猛兽,为了缓和这种偏见,故“女性主义”取代了“女权主义”。在汉语言中,女性主义较女权主义确实更为中庸和平和,少了份咄咄逼人的味道,也摆脱了对女权主义者都是偏激、刻板、离经叛道的女人的那种偏见。

When it comes to feminism, it is necessary to interpret its development in China from the translation of the word “feminism”. As early as in the new culture movement, western feminism was introduced to Chinese, according to the characteristics of the western feminist movement, scholars at that time translated feminism as “Nv Quan Zhu Yi”, which is clearly emphasizes the equal rights for women in the social, political and economic status to against any women suffering from any social, personal or economic discrimination. Because many scholars opposed feminism, regarded as great scourges. In order to alleviate this bias, “Nv Xing Zhu Yi”took a place of “Nv Quan Zhu Yi”. In Chinese, “Nv Xing Zhu Yi”is more moderate and peaceful, a little overbearing taste, and getting rid of the prejudice. It is far away from the image of extreme deviant women. 

 

二十世纪上半叶,女性主义在中国最初的发展,不管是倡导“人权”还是强调“人”的政治经济斗争,一直伴随着借用男性主体,伴随着社会其它问题的解决,被学者们戏称为“搭车解放”。解放以后,大批妇女获得了教育权和就业权,就业领域中的社会性别界限有所突破,使得女性有可能选择一条不必依附男性而独立的人生之路。不过,女性解放一直与那个时代将个体价值相联系,被置于国家、民族、阶级的主流意识形态之下,被赋予了更多的政治涵义。这是至上而下的女性解放,导致了传统父权社会意识依然盛行,女性的自我意识并没有欧美国家那么突出和明显,也使得学术界,特别是在艺术圈,女性主义艺术在21世纪前后流行了一段时间以后,便消声觅迹,不再是学术的热点。

In the first half of twentieth Century, Chinese feminism in the initial development, whether it is advocated “human rights” or that the politic and economic struggle of “human beings”, has been accompanied by borrowing a male subject with other social problems. It had been dubbed “giving a lift of liberation”. After liberation, many women have obtained the right to education and employment, and the social gender limit in the field of employment has broken, which makes it possible for women to choose an independent life without dependence on men. However, women’s liberation has always been linked with the individual values of that time and has been placed under the mainstream ideology of the state and the class which has given more political meaning. This movement of women liberation is from the upper level to the lower level, resulting in the traditional patriarchal society consciousness still prevails. The women’s self-consciousness is not so obvious compared with western women. Feminist art is  no longer popular since the 21st Century not only in the academic circle but also in the art world in China.     

 

从学理上讲,女性主义实际上包括了政治、理论和实践三个层面的内容。在政治层面,两性的不平等是一场关于社会意识形态的政治斗争,其终极目标是消除性别的不平等和一切不平等现象。在理论层面上,女性主义为学术界提供了一种全新的认识世界、社会和人类自身的视角,强调两性平等、肯定女性的价值观念、学说或方法论。在实践层面上,女性主义是一场争取妇女解放的社会运动。由于涉及的层面多而广,且不断的流动与变化,导致了人们在谈及这一问题是往往不一定在一个频道上。

Theoretically, feminism includes three aspects: politics, theory and practice. At the political level, gender inequality is a political struggle about social ideology, whose goal is to eliminate gender inequality and all inequalities. On the theoretical level, feminism provides a new understanding of the world, society and human themselves, emphasizing gender equality, affirming women’s values, doctrines, and methodologies. On the practical level, feminism is a social movement for women’s liberation. Because of the wide range involved, the perspective of feminism sometimes lead to misunderstanding problems.  

 

在艺术圈里,女性主义更像是一种观察的视角、抽象的意识形态和实践的政治策略。女性主义的实践也因为社会环境和生活境遇的不同,使得西方中产阶级白人的、单一的女性主义无法解释各国女性主义艺术实践的差异,造成了女性主义艺术的多元化与差异化,本次参展艺术家的多元性也体现了女性主义艺术的多元化状态。

In the art field, feminism is more like an observation perspective, abstract ideology and practical political strategy. Because of different social environment and living conditions, single feminine from western, white, and middle class is no longer the only feminist practice. Feminist art is diversification and differences based which reflects in this exhibition.   

 

1、女性经验:一种批判的工具

自1960年代西方激进女性主义提倡“个人的就是政治的”,女性主义者就开始将关注的问题转向日常生活层面,从父权制的根源去寻找性别不平等的种种表现,通过寻找历史上女性艺术家的声音以及挖掘女性艺术家所做的作品,深入探讨女性在艺术史上消失的原因。大批女性艺术家参与到对父权制关系中女性不平等地位的声讨当中,用艺术的方式将性别正义在公共领域与私人领域的缺失加以呈现和批判,女性主义艺术成为一种批判的工具,以身份政治为代表的文化政治学成为女性艺术的显学。

 

1. Women experience: a critical tool  

Since 1960s, Western radical feminism advocates “personal is political”, feminists began to be of concern to the daily life, to find the manifestations of gender inequality from the roots of patriarchy, by studying for the disappeared female artists in the history of art. Many women artists denounce patriarchal relations of unequal status who use the artistic way to present and criticize the gender justice in the public and private areas. Feminist art has become a critical tool to identity politics, which is the representative of cultural politics to be a focus of women art.     

 

2、女性经验:一种建构的话语

如果从方法论的角度来考量女性经验的话语建构问题,如何面对女性经验进行话语分析,不同的文化语境下的经验表述存在着巨大的差异。从历史学的角度来看,后结构主义中语言学的转向意味着对表现、再表现的历史分析,而不是追求所谓的“历史真相”,那么“女性”这样的概念实际上也是建构起来的,女性主义艺术中强调的女性经验并非具有同质性,经验、话语与主体三者之间是一种关联性的状态。

2. Women experience: a constructive discourse 

If we consider the discourse construction of female experience from the methodological point of view, how to carry out such discourse by women experiences, which has great differences in the expression in different cultural contexts. From the historical point of view, post-structuralism in linguistics means analysis of performance and history, rather than the pursuit of the so-called “historical truth”. Then the concept of“women”is actually constructed. The feminist art, which emphasis on the women experience, is not homogeneity. It is an association of state among experience, discourse and subject. 

 

3、女性经验:不同风格的认知?

在中国,当人们谈论女性艺术时,不少女艺术家都尽量回避这个话题,她们认为:好的艺术不应该划分性别,强调身份往往带有一种歧视。女性艺术家批判性的思考确实引起了人们关注女性与艺术生产之间的关系,但是过分的强调性别的差异,却容易招致本质主义的批判。

3. Women experience: different styles of cognition?

In China, when it talks about women’s art, many artists try to avoid this topic. They regard, good at should not be divided into gender and emphasizing identity often has a kind of discrimination. The critical thinking of female artists has aroused people’s attention to the relationship between women and art creation. But if it is excessive emphasis on gender differences, it is easy to lead to essentialism criticism. 

 

当人们论及女性主义艺术时,更多是从不同的观察视角去考量与传统男性化认知的独断地位之间的关系。女性艺术家除了作为女性的经验之外,同样也感知到作为人的存在的其它经验,并且将这种经验与艺术创作进行转化时,并不能完全与风格划等号。所以,我们没有必要纠结于女性主义艺术的风格是否成立,而应更加关注女性艺术家如何运用不同的观察视角和艺术手段将其自身的女性经验转化为艺术作品。本次展览的18位艺术家,在多元化的文化背景下,用她们独特的女性经验去感知和建构一种女性的视觉话语,为复杂的当代艺术谱系提供一个可供阐释和延伸的视觉文本。

When it talks about feminist art, they are more from different observation to consider the relationship between the traditional men’s cognition and the status of dogmatism. In addition to women’s experience, women artists also perceive other experiences such as human being’s existence, and they cannot be equated with the styles when this experience transforms into artistic creation. Therefore, it is not necessary for us to worry about whether the style of feminist art is established or not, but we should pay more attention to how women artists use their different observation and artistic means to turn their own women experience into artistic works. The artists in this exhibition use their unique women experience to perceive and construct the women visual discourse, providing an interpretation and extension of the visual text for the complex contemporary art pedigree under the diversified cultural background. 

 

 

刘凡于南湖

2017年11月

 

Prof. & Dr. Fan Liu, South Lake

November 2017

© 2020  Fan Liu

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